Archives de catégorie : Australia

Emissions from Australia’s oil and gas industry rose 20% in first five years of safeguard mechanism

by A. Norton, Sep 20, 2022 in The Guardian


 

 

Latest Survey of ‘Coral Cover’ Fundamentally Unscientific

by J. Marohasy, Aug 11, 2022 in WUWT


According to the latest Australian Institute of Marine Science report, there is record coral cover at the Great Barrier Reef. Yet this is less than 30 percent at about half of the reefs surveyed.

The relatively low percentage cover is because only the reef perimeter is surveyed by AIMS, which is the equivalent of reporting on the population of Sydney after skirting around the outer suburbs.

Such a method (skirting around the outer suburbs) would give no indication of population trends in more densely populated inner-city areas. And so the latest AIMS report gives no indication of coral cover at reef crests, which for all we know given the methodology underpinning this latest survey, may have collapsed entirely across the Great Barrier Reef.

We cannot know.

Furthermore, despite advances in both underwater and aerial drone mapping, which could provide automated quantitative assessments by habitat with photographic and/or visual records, AIMS persists with a method that involves towing an observer who guestimates coral cover.

Their method is subjective and archaic. It is not scientific.

My early career was spent as a field biologist in Africa. If I had submitted the AIMS survey method as the intended survey method for any one of the many insect species that I monitored, my supervisors would have rejected it. Whether attempting to monitor changes in the population of an insect species, number of people in a city, or hard coral cover at the Great Barrier Reef, there are certain factors that need to be considered if the method is to be considered scientific and therefore reliable.

Key deficiencies in the current AIMS long-term monitoring program include:
1. Conclusions are drawn about overall coral cover at each reef without ever measuring coral cover at key habitats (E.g. at the reef crest).
2. Variability in coral cover is never quantified by habitat type (E.g. reef crest versus back lagoon).
3. The area surveyed at each reef (defined by AIMS as total ‘reef perimeter’ measured as sum of manta tows) incorporates results from different habitats, and as a consequence it is doubtful that the sample plan is adequate in terms of number of replications (manta tows) per treatment (habitat) at each reef perimeter.
4. Numerical values represent subjective guesses.
5. There is no photographic or video record enabling quantification of the accuracy of the guesses.

ALL-TIME COLD RECORDS FALL IN AUSTRALIA; + SOLAR ACTIVITY CONTROLS THE CLIMATE

by Cap Allon, Jul 5, 2022 in Electroverse


ALL-TIME COLD RECORDS FALL IN AUSTRALIA

Following its best start to a ski season ever, conditions have anomalously cold and snowy across swathes of Australia.

June 2022 finished with a temperature anomaly of -0.1C below the multidecadal average, according to data supplied by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology–whatever that’s worth.

The unusual chill has extended into July, too, and hundreds of monthly low temperature records have fallen over the past two days alone–particularly across the northeastern state of Queensland, where even a number of all-time benchmarks have been toppled.

 

Senior meteorologist Harry Clark said the combination of rain and cold temperatures was “extremely unusual” for July.

“Both in terms of the amount of rainfall and the extent of it, for what is one of our driest months of the year, but also for the extremely low maximum temperatures we’ve seen,” said Clarke. “Temperatures are looking more into what you might expect in Melbourne, or some of those southern capital cities where it’s the typical winter weather.”

Clarke confirmed that “many” cold weather records were broken across Queensland this week, with the standouts for him being Rockhampton peaking at only 12.5C (54.5F) yesterday, and Toowoomba struggling to just 7.6C (45.7F).

Other locales registered equally impressive readings: The Gold Coast Seaway set its coldest day of any month ever yesterday with 14C (57.2F); while further north, in Townsville, residents there suffered their coldest July day ever with a high of 15C (59F).

And most recently, Brisbane, the capital of Queensland –which had already registered its coldest start to a winter since 1904— has, today (July 5), gone and logged its coldest daily high in 22 years, reaching only 12.4C (54.3F).

For reference, Brisbane’s lowest-ever maximum remains the 12C (53.6F) set in July 2000; with the city’s third-coldest July maximum actually being yesterday’s 14.2C (57.6F) … but ‘catastrophic global warming’, you know … ?

SOLAR ACTIVITY CONTROLS THE CLIMATE

The global temperature record since 1880 is highly correlated to solar activity, and solar activity is highly correlated to the harmonics of planetary motion.

The below chart is NASA’s Historical Total Solar Irradiance Reconstruction, Time Series.

And looking ahead, Australia’s Antarctic blast isn’t forecast to abate anytime soon — quite the opposite, in fact:

 

2021-2022 Tonga Volcanic Eruption and Record Rainfall in Eastern Australia and New Zealand

by A. Wong & W. Yims, Jul 4, 2022 in The SaltbushClub


Summary

During late 2021, the Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha’apai submarine volcano erupted creating a new island which erupted sub-aerially on 15th January, 2022 sending a plume 58 km above sea level penetrating the mesosphere. The study of observation records including satellite data has revealed warming of the ocean-surface layer followed by atmospheric cooling caused by the release of geothermal heat and volcanic materials entering the atmosphere respectively. Environmental factors influencing weather include the development of a relatively ‘short’ life-span South Pacific Blob; the transfer of large quantities of water vapour from the ocean into the atmosphere; the low-pressure condition on the ocean surface; the formation of clouds; the reduction of solar radiation caused by volcanic materials in the atmosphere; the strengthening of trade winds; the meandering of jet streams; the development of atmospheric rivers, the additional cooling effect of torrential rainfall, and, the switch to La Niña conditions. The record rainfall in eastern Australia and New Zealand and Tropical Cyclone Dovi occurring in February 2022 were both outcomes of atmospheric cooling following the sub-aerial eruption.